By Phillip E. Pack Ph.D.
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- Cell division
- Organization of the skeletal system
- Nervous method organization
- Immune procedure and different physique defenses
- Reproductive system
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Additional info for Anatomy and Physiology
Connective tissue consists of scattered cells immersed in an intercellular material called the matrix. The matrix consists of fibers and ground substance. The kinds and amounts of fiber and ground substance determine the character of the matrix, which in turn defines the kind of connective tissue. Table 3-1 Kinds of Connective Tissue Tissue Type Cells Present Fibers Present Matrix Characteristics areolar fibroblasts collagen macrophages elastic adipocytes reticular mast cells plasma cells loosely arranged fibers in gelatinous ground substance adipose adipocytes reticular collagen closely packed cells with a small amount of gelatinous ground substance; stores fat reticular reticular cells reticular loosely arranged fibers in gelatinous ground substance fibroblasts collagen (some elastic) parallel-arranged bundles of fibers with few cells and little ground substance; great tensile strength Loose Connective Tissue: Dense Connective Tissue: dense regular (continued) 48 CliffsQuickReview Anatomy and Physiology Table 3-1 (continued) Tissue Type Cells Present Fibers Present Matrix Characteristics fibroblasts collagen (some elastic) Irregularly arranged bundles of fibers with few cells and little ground substance; high tensile strength hyaline (gristle) chondrocytes collagen (some elastic) limited ground substance; dense, semisolid matrix fibrocartilage chondrocytes collagen (some elastic) limited ground intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue elastic chondrocytes elastic limited ground substance; flexible but firm matrix compact (dense) osteoblasts osteocytes collagen rigid, calcified ground substance with osteons (canal systems) spongy (cancellous) osteoblasts osteocytes collagen rigid, calcified ground substance (no osteons) Dense Connective Tissue: dense irregular Cartilage: Bone (osseous tissue): Blood & Lymph (vascular tissue): blood erythrocytes “fibers” leukocytes are soluble thrombocytes proteins that form during clotting “matrix” is liquid blood plasma Chapter 3: Tissues Tissue Type Cells Present Fibers Present Matrix Characteristics lymph leukocytes “fibers” are soluble proteins that form during clotting “matrix” is liquid blood plasma 49 ■ Cell types.
Thermoregulation is supported through the sweating and regulation of blood flow through the skin. ■ Metabolism of vitamin D occurs in the skin. ■ Storage of blood that can be shunted to other parts of the body when needed takes place in the skin. ■ Excretion of salts and small amounts of wastes (ammonia and urea) occurs with the production of sweat. 56 CliffsQuickReview Anatomy and Physiology The Epidermis The epidermis consists of stratified squamous epithelium. Four cell types are present: ■ Keratinocytes produce keratin, a protein that hardens and waterproofs the skin.
Tissue origin. All mature connective tissues originate from embry- onic connective tissue. There are two kinds of embryonic connective tissues: Mesenchyme is the origin of all mature connective tissues. Mucous connective tissue is a temporary tissue formed during embryonic development. An epithelial membrane is a combination of epithelial and connective tissues working together to perform a specific function. As such, it acts as an organ. There are four principle types of epithelial membranes: Chapter 3: Tissues 51 ■ Serous membranes line interior organs and cavities.
Anatomy and Physiology by Phillip E. Pack Ph.D.