By Carlo C. DiClemente
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Extra resources for Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover
It is difficult to intervene in multiple areas at the same time, and many of the risk and protective factors are not amenable to change (family of origin, geographic location, parental absence). Often the primary interest area of the clinician or researcher is highlighted, with inadequate attention given to other aspects. The biopsychosocial model clearly supports the complexity and interactive nature of the process of addiction and recovery. However, additional integrating elements are needed in order to make this tripartite collection of factors truly functional for explaining how individuals become addicted and how the process of recovery from addiction occurs.
The environmental reevaluation process assesses the utility of the behavior in the current environment. , 1999; Rogers, 1995). Finally, an awareness of societal values and society’s promotion or proscription of the behavior also play a part in the thinking and feeling processes. This social liberation process promotes realization and acceptance of social norms and societal sanctions, Human Intentional Behavior Change 35 and engages the individual to view change as possible and to experience viable alternatives.
This process of moving to excess is described primarily as a psychological one, wherein the appetitive activities have many interactive determinants that are important in diverse areas of functioning and that become involved in a “developmental pro- Models of Addiction and Change 17 cess of increasing attachment” best understood by a “balance-of-force social learning model” (pp. 319–321). Understanding both treatment and change of excessive behaviors would require personal cost–benefits analyses and a decision-making process as well as self-reconstitution.
Addiction and change : how addictions develop and addicted people recover by Carlo C. DiClemente