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By Audrey Thomson, Agnes Martinet

The routines can be utilized without or with the Grammar. They contain a solution key.

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Connectionism is another cognitive framework for the focus on learning processes, beginning in the 1980s and becoming increasingly influential. It differs from most other current frameworks for the study of SLA in not considering language learning to involve either innate knowledge or abstraction of rules and principles, but rather to result from increasing strength of associations (connections) between stimuli and responses. Because this framework considers frequency of input an important causative factor in learning, it is also providing a theoretical base for research on language teaching.

As in EA and first language studies of the 1960s and 1970s, Selinker and others taking this approach considered the development of the IL to be a creative process, driven by inner forces in interaction with environmental factors, and influenced both by L1 and by input from the target language. While influence from L1 and L2 language systems in a learner’s IL is clearly recognized, emphasis is on the IL itself as a third language system in its own right which differs from both L1 and L2 during the course of its development.

New York: Basic Books. Chapter 1, “First word,” is a clear introduction to the important questions of second language acquisition from psychological and social perspectives, such as why there are learning differences among individuals who are different ages, are acquiring related versus unrelated languages, or have different educational experiences. CHAPTER 3 The linguistics of Second Language Acquisition CHAPTER PREVIEW KEY TERMS Interference Interlanguage (IL) Natural order Universal Grammar (UG) Language faculty Principles Parameters Initial state Final state Markedness Grammaticalization In this chapter we survey several approaches to the study of SLA that have been heavily influenced by the field of linguistics since the middle of the twentieth century.

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A Practical English Grammar by Audrey Thomson, Agnes Martinet

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