Download e-book for kindle: A Dictionary of Philosophy by Antony G. Flew

By Antony G. Flew

ISBN-10: 0330256106

ISBN-13: 9780330256100

ISBN-10: 1349174181

ISBN-13: 9781349174188

ISBN-10: 1349174203

ISBN-13: 9781349174201

This is a brand new, up-to-date and revised variation of a reference paintings that has proved valuable as a device for the coed of philosophy, in addition to a instruction manual for the final reader. From the classical thinkers via Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, as much as the fashionable age of Russell and Wittgenstein, this accomplished dictionary spans the personalities, terminology, and vocabulary of 1000's of philosophers over millions of years.

This moment version of a big and useful paintings has been thoroughly revised, and fifteen new significant articles were further. Now, greater than ever ahead of, A Dictionary of Philosophy is an important and well timed paintings for the trendy scholar of thought.

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Example text

Avencebrol. See Ibn Gabirol. average. 1. In one common sense, a word virtually synonymous with 'typical', 'ordinary', or 'in no way distinguished'. 2. More technically, the average is the arithmetic mean: to find, for instance, the average height of the people in a room you must add up the heights of every individual and divide that total by the total number of people. It is false to say, as is quite often said, that half the members of any group must be below and half above average in whatever respect anyone chooses to specify.

The classical atomists maintained that atoms possess only spatial extension, shape, solidity, and perhaps weight, but not properties such as colour, warmth, and smell. They thus anticipated the corpuscularian philosophy of 'Gassendi, 'Boyle, and 'Locke in the 17th century, with its 30 emphasis on the difference between the 'primary and secondary qualities of material things. Modern physics maintains the principle of explaining observations by seeking the structure of progressively smaller particles, but these particles can no longer be conceived as having solidity and shape, like miniature billiard balls: electromagnetic and other less familiar properties have superseded these in explanatory importance.

The intellect is the capacity to think: to form concepts and to possess beliefs. Concepts and beliefs are called by Aquinas 'species', an ambiguous term with the many senses of the English word 'idea'. The intellect is the power to acquire, possess, and exercise species: the power to acquire them, by operating upon sense experience, is called the active intellect (intellectus agens) and the power to store and exercise them is called the receptive intellect (intellectus possibilis). Against Muslim commentators on Aristotle, Aquinas maintained that every individual human being possessed both kinds of intellect; and against Platonizing theologians he insisted that for both the acquisition and exercise of intellectual ideas the cooperation of the Aquinas imagination was necessary.

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A Dictionary of Philosophy by Antony G. Flew


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